By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
1. Understand and use the Neurone Module
2. Complete the project under the guidance of teachers
3. Summarize the general learning methods
BOSON Artificial Intelligence Starter Kit (Power Mainboard*1, Neurone Module*1, Button*1, LED*1, Buzzer*1)
Preface: This is the first lesson of How Does a Machine Learn? in this chapter, also the first course of the part “Initial decipherment of Artificial Intelligence”. In the previous lessons, we have experienced three kinds of AI technologies: natural language processing, computer vision, and expert system. The rapid development of the former two is closely related to the support of Machine Learning, of which the neural network is the vital part. This lesson initially decrypts the AI neural network in Machine Learning by the Neurone Module. In this course, students will use the Neurone Module to simulate the process of human identifying SOS and explore the essence of learning under your guidance.
For reference: In this part, you can introduce the famous shipwreck in history to students to lead in the topic, bring out the driving question, and analyze the function requirements step by step.
Intro Question: Do you know the history of Titanic? What is SOS?
Driving Question: From understanding that SOS is a distress signal to using SOS to rescue others or ask for help, why can humans accurately recognize SOS signal in this process?
Function 1: send SOS;
Function 2: recognize SOS;
Function 3: respond to SOS
For reference: This part mainly includes the knowledge and skills related to the project and makes a brief introduction to SOS signal and Neurone Module.
SOS is a universal Morse code distress signal. It is a combination of three dots followed by three dashes followed by three dots(. . . _ _ _ . . .), which is easy to send and easily recognized. Any untrained people can easily use things at hand to send such signals or identify them.
Neurone module helps us understand the function module of neural network in “Machine Learning”. It simulates the neurons in our brain.
Neuron is the basic structure and functional unit of neural network, which is responsible for receiving, integrating, and transmitting information in human body.
For reference: This part aims to help students formulate design ideas based on the knowledge and skills learned in the previous part.
Pressing and releasing the button module repeatedly can help to send the SOS signal(function 1), and it seems that“learning” and “output” functions on the neurone module can realize the function 2 and 3.
For reference: Since the principles behind this project are abstract and not easy to understand, you need to lead students to complete the project and make a detailed explanation.
For reference: This part will ask students to rethink and share their works. You can remind them to complete this part from these aspects: how do you feel after finishing this project? ; Do you encounter any difficulties in making, and how do you overcome them; What do you think about Artificial Intelligence? Let two students share their work and ideas after a given time.
For reference: In this part, you can summarize the curriculum project by raising questions to let students think and discuss so as to recall the content of this lesson and deepen the understanding of the project.
Question: Now can you answer the driving question at the beginning of this lesson---”Why can
we recognize SOS signal?”
Answer: We remembered the characteristics of SOS signal in the process of learning and training, so in practice, we can identify whether it is SOS by comparing and matching the received signal with that in our brain.
For reference: At the end of this lesson, you can assign homework to students as the extension of the course.
Question: Does this lesson bring you any ideas on effective learning methods, or as the title says, how to ignite the light of your wisdom?
Answer: Learning is not just simple memory. It requires us to think and extract the characteristics of knowledge, and then constantly adjust, optimize, and expand in actual practice.
Neuron, also known as nerve call, is the basis unit of communication in the nervous system. It senses changes in environment and receives signal, and then transmits information to other neurons to allow them to react. Neurons account for about half of the nervous system, and the rest are mostly composed of Glial cells. The basic part of a neuron includes dendrites, cell bodies, axons, and synapses. In order for neurons to communicate, they need to transmit information both within the neuron and from one neuron to the next. This process utilizes both electrical signals as well as chemical messengers. The dendrites of neurons receive information from sensory receptors or other neurons. This information is then passed down to the cell body and on to the axon. Once the information has arrived at the axon, it travels down the length of the axon in the form of an electrical signal known as an action potential.
There are about 86 billion nerve cells in a human brain, of which 70 billion are cerebellar granule cells.
Biological Neural Networks generally refer to the network composed of biological neurons, cells and contacts, which is used to generate biological consciousness and help organisms think and act.
Definition of Human Learning
Human learning is a process in which a person forms a certain comprehension or sums up a certain rule about a kind of problem based on his experience, and then utilizes these principles to analyze and determine new problems.
Definition of Machine Learning
Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that improve automatically through experience and by the use of data. Machine learning algorithms build a model based on sample data, known as "training data", in order to make predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed to do so.
Morse Code, invented by Alfred Weir and Samuel Morse in 1836, is a method of transmitting textual information using a series of on/off signals of two different lengths,
The timing in Morse code is based around the length of one "dit". From the dit length we can derive the length of a "dah" (or "dash") and the various pauses:
1.Dit: 1 unit
2.Dah: 3 units
3.Intra-character space (the gap between dits and dahs within a character): 1 unit
4.Inter-character space (the gap between the characters of a word): 3 units
5.Word space (the gap between two words): 7 unit